Figure 3. Quantum computing global top affiliations by document count, 1982–2020

Quantum computing research has an international footprint. The 15 institutions with the highest publication output are located in China, France, Japan, the UK and the US. The Chinese Academy of Sciences shows particularly high productivity. China’s overall spending on quantum computing is not public information. However, the government’s interest in funding quantum technologies is clear from the Five-Year Plan 2016–2020 and a 10 billion USD investment to build the world’s largest quantum research facility.7

The majority of author affiliations are academic and governmental research institutes. Private sector enterprises appear much further down the list, starting with Nippon Telegraph and Telephone ranked 24th with 401 publications, IBM ranked 38th with 327 publications, and Microsoft Research ranked 78th with 198 publications.

Quantum computing publications vs patents screenshotQuantum computing publications vs patents per year

Figure 4. Quantum computing publications versus patents per year, 2000–2020

Industry has taken the lead in patent applications, which are also increasing over time. The top 25 patent submitters include computer industry veterans IBM, Hewlett Packard and Intel, as well as Microsoft, D-Wave Systems, Google, NVIDIA, Rigetti and PsiQuantum. MIT, Harvard University and the University of California System are the three academic organizations on the list.